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Neurological disorders in Human

Neurological disorders in Human

Neurological disorders are diseases of the brain, spine and the nerves that connect them. There are more than 600 diseases of the nervous system, such as brain tumors, epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease and stroke as well as less familiar ones such as frontotemporal dementia.There are multiple causes of neurotoxicity in children including medications, extrinsic toxins and insults, illicit drugs, built up of toxic metabolites due to genetic or acquired disorders, and metabolic abnormalities. It is centered on causes of neurotoxicity affecting the pediatric brain and producing typical and easily recognized imaging manifestations.

Early identification of common and less common imaging findings may point toward the correct direction, and may facilitate early diagnosis and institution of appropriate treatment to reverse or at least limit the injury to the developing brain. Two common imaging patterns of neurotoxicity in children are the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and acute toxic leukoencephalopathy that are usually related to chemotherapy and immunosuppression for common pediatric malignancies.

Another well‐described imaging pattern of injury in children involves reversible splenii lesions with or without associated white matter abnormalities. Multiple additional extrinsic causes of neurotoxicity are presented including radiation and chemo radiation, various medications and treatment regimens, poisoning, illicit drug use or accidental exposure, and the respective characteristic neuroimaging findings are highlighted. Intrinsic neurotoxicity may occur in the setting of inborn errors of metabolism or acquired progressive organ failure leading to build up of toxic metabolites. Additional intrinsic causes of neurotoxicity include metabolic derangements. The goal of the article is to enhance familiarity of neurologists and neuroradiologists with the imaging appearance of common and less common toxic insults to the pediatric brain.
Many bacterial (i.e. Mycobacterial tuberculosis, Neisseria meningitides), viral (i.e. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Enteroviruses, West Nile Virus, Zika), fungal (i.e. Cryptococcus, Aspergillus), and parasitic (i.e. malaria, Chagas) infections can affect the nervous system. Neurological symptoms may occur due to the infection itself, or due to an immune response.

Neurological disorders cause your brain and nerves to deteriorate over time. They can change your personality and cause confusion. They can also destroy your brain’s tissue and nerves.Some brain diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, may develop as you age. They can slowly impair your memory and thought processes. Other diseases, such as Tay-Sachs disease, are genetic and begin at an early age.

Signs of Neurological Disorder:
The signs of neurological disorder may vary significantly depending upon the type of disorder and the specific area of the body that is affected. Sometimes person experience emotional symptoms while in other cases physical symptoms may be the result.

What causes Neurological Disorder:

  1. • Lifestyle-related causes
    • Infections
    • Genetics
    • Nutrition-related causes
    • Environmental influences
    • Physical injuries

Self-assessment for Neurological Disorder:

  1. • Headaches
    • Blurry vision
    • Fatigue
    • Changes in behaviour
    • Numbness in the legs or arms
    • Changes in coordination or balance
    • Weakness
    • Slurred speech
    • Tremors

How to cure it:
An inpatient or residential program is that the patient’s environment will, for the time spent in residence, be subject to a great deal of control by clinic staff. An inpatient multidisciplinary approach can be effective for a wide range of neurological disorders, ranging from issues such as addiction to degenerative ailments such as Parkinson’s disease.These may range from medications such as the neuroleptics (haloperidol and chlorpromazine, for example) used to treat organic disorders of the brain such as schizophrenia, to comparatively simple analgesics, such as ibuprofen, acetaminophen and opiates to treat the painful effects of manyneurological ailments.

By – Assistant Professor – Ms. Kumud Misra
Department of B.Ed.
Uttaranchal College of Education
Uttaranchal (P.G.) College Of Bio-Medical Sciences & Hospital

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