No species other than humans have been endowed with a gift of language. Animals cannot acquire human language because of its Complex structure and their physical inadequacies. A language is an abstract set of psychological principles and sociological considerations that constitutes a person’s competence as a speaker in a given situation. The psychological principles provide him and Ability to understand and create a system of rules establishing correlations between meanings and sound sequences. Language has creativity and productivity. The structural elements of human language can be combined to produce new utterances, which neither the speaker nor his heaters may have made or heard before any listener yet which both side understand without difficulty. Language changes according to the needs of society. Old English is different from modern English. So is old Hindi different from Modern Hindi. Laukik Sanskrit, Pali and Prakrat all the various forms of Sanskrit arising from a number of changes. It is a set of principles that a speaker Masters; it is not anything that he does. In brief, a language is a code which is different from his linguistic performance. But main linguistic or communicative competence is not enough for communication; it has to be coupled with communicative competence. This is the view of the sociolinguists phone stores the use of language according to the occasion and context, the speaker and the listener, the profession and the social status of the speaker and the listener, the profession and the social status of the speaker and the listener. That language is the result of social interaction; it is an established truth.
Language operates between the speaker and the listener in a social situation. The speaker attached sound and through these sounds he communicates his concepts. This concept set up a verbal image in the mind of the speaker and he speaks it by a complex of sounds. It is composed of one or more sounds combined in one or more syllables. Thus, the speaker in the process of conveying his mental concept serves as stimulus and the person on hearing it and acting according to it serves as a reaction or response. The role of language or the mother tongue in human life is as follows:-
1. Intellectual role of language: Language distinguishes man from beasts because it has a capacity to store experiences which form the basis for further development. Intelligence is like a treasure which is enriched in the context of prior wisdom that is stored in the mind as well as texts; it is on the basis of existing wisdom and intelligence that man can undertake for the intellectual development. Thus, the language plays a vital intellectual role in life of man.
2. Emotional role of language: Languages is a tool to express our ideas emotions feelings sentiments opinions views and needs. It is true language that we express our blissful and sorrowful sentiments. of course face expressions plays a role in expressing emotions but not all people can read them why language makes it explicit for anybody to understand what is being spoken. Face expressions and body language may not express the inner expressions when not accompanied by language but language alone can serve the purpose well.
3. Social role of language: Society comes into being because members are able to communicate with one another, and language plays a vital role in it. With the development of language, it has become possible for social members to undertake increase interaction with one another, and we can see its manifestation in various forms including the social media.
4. Literary role of language: The excellence of language can be seen in Literature which remains the highest point of expression. Literature forms the basis on which we can build the structure of community society, nation and world. Language remains the most important part of literature, without it, you cannot give expression to what you want to say. Not only in poetry prose and other literary expressions Language also plays a vital role in other kind of literature such as in the field of science technology medicine and the like.
5. Cultural role of language: In the earliest times people came together to form part of community and Society, and with this their culture and Civilization starts to develop. When language was developed, it played a vital role in its further advancement as it was on its basis that different shades of culture and civilization could be given expression. This is the reason that language is said to be an important tool for development of culture and civilization of any community, society and nation.
The language undergoes a continuous and unnoticed change for its refinement and depth. It is wants to the demands and requirements of the group as it represents. As a human utterances become Complex and varied, a language in order to be living, must move with the group, must grow with the group, should be alive to their needs and aspirations. in this process of change and growth language acquires new shape, new approach, new significance and new applications.